Sunday, May 6, 2012

Al-Imaam al-Bazzaar mentions the reason Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah focused more on writing about the matters of I’tiqaad than the matters of Fiqh

Al-Imaam Aboo Hafs ‘Umar bin ‘Alee al-Bazzaar [d.749H] said regarding Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [d.728H]  in his biography [1] of him:

  “And indeed he – رضى الله عنه – wrote most of his writings regarding the Usool (fundamental principles of the Deen) [2] as opposed to other than them from the sciences (of Islaam), so I asked him about the reason for that, and I requested from him that he write a book in Fiqh, compiling all of his preferred opinions and those opinions that he held to be predominant, so it can be a reference point in issuing fataawaa (legal verdicts).  So he said to me, what means:

  The furoo[3] of the Deen are easy to understand and not difficult, so if the muslim were to follow one of the ‘Ulamaa’ who are to be followed, it is permissible for him to act upon his statement as long as there is nothing to make him believe it to be incorrect.   

As for the Usool, then indeed I have seen the people of bid’a, misguidance, and desires, like the Mutafalsifah (the people of philosophy) [4], the Baataniyyah [5] and the Malaahidah [6], and those who believe in Wahdatul-Wujood [7], the Dahriyyah [8], the Qadariyyah [9], the Nusayriyyah [10], the Jahmiyyah [11], the Hulooliyyah [12], the Mu’attilah [13], the Mujassimah [14], the Mushabbihah [15], the Raawindiyyah [16], the Kullaabiyyah [17], the Saalimiyyah [18], and other than them from ahlul-bid’a – creating a critical situation by (their) misguidance.  And it is clear to me that many of them only intend the destruction of the pure and sacred Sharee’ah of Muhammad, (the Deen) which prevails and dominates over every religion, and that the majority of them have brought the people into doubts and confusion regarding the usool of their Deen, and for this I have rarely heard or seen someone turning away from the Book and the Sunnah, and turning to their (ahlul-bid’ah’s) sayings and opinions except that he falls into heresy or falls into doubt and uncertainty in his Deen and his I’tiqaad.

  So when I saw the affair was like that, it became clear to me that it is obligatory upon everyone who has the ability to repel their doubts and their falsehood and cut through the evidences they bring and their misguidance, that he expend his effort in exposing their wickedness and false evidences, defending the religion of al-Haneefiyyah [19] and the clear, authentic Sunnah. [20]

And by Allaah! Never have I seen amongst them anyone who has written in this affair and claimed a high position (for himself) except that he has aided by the content of his speech in the destruction of the foundations of the Deen of Islaam.  And the reason for that is his deviation from the clear, distinct truth, and from what the noble Messengers came with from the Lord of al-‘Aalameen and his following the paths of philosophy in the terminologies that they call, by their claims, hukmiyyaat (verdicts) and ‘aqliyyaat (intellectual and logical reasonings), but in reality they are only ignorance and misguidance.  And his adhering to them while neglecting everything else completely, then it overcomes him until it conceals his sound intellect, and he becomes so confused that he goes astray and cannot distinguish between Haqq and baatil.  And indeed Allaah is so tremendously generous with His ‘Ibaad that He would never leave them without giving them an intellect that accepts the Haqq and affirms it, and rejects falsehood and negates it.  However, a lack of success and guidance (from Allaah) and the predominance of innovations and desires causes those who it causes to fall into misguidance.

  And indeed Allaah, the Most High, has made the sound intellect a scale by which the ‘abd weighs the statements, so he distinguishes between what is in agreement with the Haqq and what is in agreement with falsehood.  And Allaah did not send the Messengers except to those who have intellect, and the charge of carrying out the obligatory actions (prescribed in the Deen) is not established except with its (the intellects) presence.  So how can it be said that ‘this opposes some of what the noble Messengers came with from Allaah the Most High?  This is clear falsehood that every sound intellect can see’, but:
ﮧ  ﮨ   ﮩ  ﮪ  ﮫ   ﮬ  ﮭ  ﮮ   ﮯ   ﮰ    
“Whoever Allaah has not granted light then for him there is no light.” [21]

The Shaykh, the Imaam – may Allaah have mercy upon his soul – said:
“So this and the like of that is what made it obligatory upon me to focus all of my attention towards (writing and defending) the Usool (of the Deen), and necessitated that I mention their statements (the statements of ahlul-bid’ah) and counter them with what Allaah the Most High has blessed me with from intellectual and textual arguments.”

I [al-Imaam al-Bazzaar] say:  “and indeed he clarified - by the praise of Allaah, the Most High, in what he has written regarding them (the Usool of the Deen), for everyone with knowledge and insight - Haqq from baatil.  And He aided him by His tawfeeq until he refuted their bid’a and their opinions, their deceptions and their desires, with textual proofs in a logical and intellectual way, to the extent that he answered and replied to every doubt from their doubts, by numerous, clear, manifest answers that every person of sound intellect can understand, and every person of intelligence can contemplate and reflect over.

  So, by the praise of Allaah Who blessed us to see and accompany him, for indeed Allaah made him a hujjah upon the people of this era, most of whose people turned away (from the affairs of their Deen) due to their busying themselves with the passing pleasures of the dunyaa to the exclusion of the matters of the Hereafter, and there is no power or might except by Allaah.  But Allaah, the Owner of Might and Power, has guaranteed the preservation and protection of this Deen up until Yawmud-Deen (the Day of Judgment), and made it superior over every other deen, so all praise and thanks are due to Allaah, Lord of al-‘Aalameen.”

Prepared by Aboo Sufyaan ‘Uthmaan Beecher

[1] Al-A’laamul-‘aliyyah fee manaaqibi Shaykhul-Islaam Ibnu Taymiyyah.  This selection is from the print included with and following al-‘Uqoodud-darriyyah fee dhikri ba’di manaaqibi Shaykhil-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah of al-Imaam, al-Haafith Muhammad bin Ahmad bin ‘Abdul-Haadee [d.744H] (another famous student and companion of Shaykhul-Islaam), Daar ‘Aalim al-Fawaa’id, (pp. 754-757).
[2]  Meaning the issues of I’tiqaad (belief), clarifying the ‘aqeedah of the People of Tawheed and Sunnah from the falsehood, doubts and misguidance of those who oppose it from ahlul-bid’a.
[3]  The branches, meaning the matters related to Fiqh and Ahkaam.
[4]  The people who use philosophy and rational thinking in their approach to understanding matters of religion, the likes of the famous Greek philosophers Aristotle, Plato, and others.  The Mutakalimeen (the people of theological rhetoric) from the Mu’tazilah, Ashaa’irah, and those similar to them, took from the Greek philosophers and innovated principles by which they attempt to understand the matters of I’tiqaad, negating Allaah’s Names and Attributes (Asmaa’ was-Sifaat), al-Qadar,  the punishment of the grave, and many other matters of ‘Aqeedah. For more, refer to Dar’u ta’aarudil-‘Aqli wan-Naql and Majmoo’ al-Fataawaa of Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah.
[5]  The Baataniyyah are a sect that believes that the Sharee’ah has outer, apparent meanings (thaahir) that can be understood by everyone, and hidden, internal meanings (baatin) which are only understandable to the intelligent.  And those who can understand these hidden, internal meanings are no longer bound by the obligations of the Sharee’ah.  Also from their innovated beliefs is denial of the messengership of the Messengers and the Hereafter, and their belief in the infallible imaams.  They have numerous names that they are known by due to the different sects that sprung up amongst them:  the Qaraamitah, the Ismaa’eeliyyah, the Khurramiyyah, the Khurramdeeniyyah, the Sab’iyyah, the Baabikiyyah, the Muhammirah, and the Ta’leemiyyah.  Refer to Fadaai’hul-Baatiniyyah of al-Ghazaalee, Bayaan madhhab al-Baatiniyyah of ad-Daylamee (pg.5), and Majmoo’ al-Fataawaa (35/141, 143, 149, & 152).
[6]  A heretical sect from the Mutafalsifah who negate Allaah’s Sifaat (Attributes) and believe in the pre-existence of the universe and that it was not created by Allaah’s power and will, a statement reported from the likes of Ibn ‘Arabee, Ibn Seenaa and Aristotle. [See Dar’u ta’aarudil-‘Aqli wan-Naql (1/126) and Ijtimaa’ul-Jayooshil-Islaamiyyah of al-Imaam Ibnul-Qayyim (2/95)]. 
[7]  The belief that there is no existence except Allaah’s existence, and that there is no reality except the reality of Allaah, meaning that Allaah and His creation are one and the same, which is the greatest and most complete type of disbelief in Allaah, the Most High.  This is the belief of the Dahriyyah, the extreme Soofees, and was likewise the belief of Sayyid Qutb and from the ‘aqeedah of Jamaa’at at-Tableegh.
[8]  A sect that followed the way of the Mutafalsifah. From among their deviant beliefs is denial of Allaah’s Attributes and Actions, and the belief that the universe created itself and that things only happen by astronomical movements. Likewise, they believe that we will not be physically resurrected after death and we are dust and bones, and that it is only the souls that the blessings of Allaah reach in their graves and not the bodies. They share many beliefs with the Malaahidah. [See Majmoo’ al-Fataawaa (1/167) and Dar’u ta’aarudil-‘Aqli wan-Naql (1/337-394)].  Ahmad bin Abee Khaythamah mentions in his Tareekh that he heard Ibn Ma’een say:  “’Amru bin ‘Ubayd was from the Dahriyyah.” [Siyar A’laam an-Nubulaa (6/260)]
[9]  The followers of Ma’bad al-Juhanee and ‘Amru bin ‘Ubayd.  The basis of their false beliefs is the denial of Allaah’s Qadr (Pre-decree) and their claim that Allaah has no knowledge of His slaves actions until after they come about, and that He has no power or ability over them.  Rather it is the slaves who create their own actions. Ma’bad took this innovated saying from a man named Sawsan (or Sansaweeh), a Christian who accepted Islaam and then returned to Christianity.  Then Gheelaan bin Muslim ad-Dimishqee took that belief from Ma’bad, as was narrated by al-Awzaa’ee.  Refer to ash-Sharee’ah of al-Aajurree, Khalq Af’aal al-‘Ibaad of al-Bukhaaree, Sharh Usool I’tiqaad of al-Laalikaa’ee, and Majmoo’ al-Fataawaa of Shaykhul-Islaam for more on the Qadariyyah.
[10]   The Nusayriyyah are from the extreme Shee’ah who claim divinity for ‘Alee (رضى الله عنه) while making the position and status of Muhammad (صلى الله غليه وسلم) lower than him, claiming that he was but a “hijaab” (veil) for ‘Alee (to protect him).  Their origin is linked to the Ithnaa’ ‘Ashreeiyya (the Twelvers) or the Sab’iyyah Shee’ah sects who believe in the infallible imaams. They were founded by Muhammad bin Nusayr an-Nameeree [d.270H].  Shaykhul-Islaam said about the Nusayriyyah: “They are more kuffaar than the Jews and Christians (are) by unanimous agreement of the Muslims.” See Minhaajus-Sunnatin-Nabawiyyah (3/452).
[11]  Those upon the way of al-Ja’d bin Dirham [d.124H] in Basrah and Jahm bin Safwaan [d.128H] in Khursasaan, from whom this sect gets its name. From their false, baseless sayings is their claim that the Qur’aan is created and is not the Speech of Allaah, that Allaah is not above His ‘Arsh,  that Allaah did not speak to Moosaa (عليه السلام) and negate all of Allaah’s Names and Attributes.  They also say that the human being has no power or ability over his actions, rather he is forced to do the actions that he does with no will or choice, Allaah being the One who does them.  Eemaan with the Jahmiyyah does not increase or decrease but instead is simply knowing Allaah only, without belief in the heart and without affirming it with the tongue.  Many of the Imaam’s of the Salaf declared the Jahmiyyah to be disbelievers and not from the people of Islaam due to these heretical claims. Because of his heresy and disbelief, Khaalid bin ‘Abdillaah al-Qasree, the ameer over ‘Iraaq, sacrificed al-Ja’d on the day of ‘Eedul-Adhaa in Waasit.  Refer to ar-Radd ‘alaal-Jahmiyyah of al-Imaam ad-Daarimee and ar-Radd ‘alaal-Jahmiyyati waz-Zanaadiqah of al-Imaam Ahmad.
[12]  Hulool has two meanings, or types: those who say that Allaah is in every place and everything by His Dhaat (Essence, or Self), and they are the Jahmiyyah, and those who say He dwells within particular individuals, like Ibn ‘Arabee and his followers from the extreme Soofees.  See Ash-Sharee’ah of al-Aajurree (3/1076) and Majmoo’  al-Fataawaa (2/171-172).
[13] The Mu’attilah are all those who make ta’teel (deny) the Asmaa’ and Sifaat of Allaah, from the Mu’tazilah, the Jahmiyyah, the Qaraamitah Shee’ah, and the Ashaa’irah and Maaturidiyyah, and other than them.  Jamaa’at at-Tableegh follow the Ashaa’irah and Maaturidiyyah in this issue.  Likewise, Sayyid Qutb made ta’teel of the Sifaat of Allaah in his writings.
[14]  They are from Ahlul-Kalaam (the people of theological rhetoric) and they say that Allaah is a jism (body, or form), a saying which has no basis in the Qur’aan, the authentic Sunnah, nor in the statements of the Salaf of this Ummah.    The origins of this innovation stem from Hishaam binul-Hakam ar-Raafidee [d.187H ] and Hishaam bin Saalim al-Jawaaleeqee and other than them from the Raafidah and the Karraamiyyah.  Several sects of the Raafidah Shee’ah speak with tajseem (saying that Allaah is a jism).  Shaykhul-Islaam said in his Minhaaj us-Sunnah' (1/204):  “As for the third saying, - and it is the saying established from the Imaams of the pure Sunnah, like  al-Imaam Ahmad and others. They do not use the word 'al-jism', neither in affirmation nor in negation, and this is for two reasons.  One of them:  it is not reported from the Book nor the Sunnah, nor has it been reported from any of the Companions or those who followed them in goodness, nor from other than them amongst the Imaams of the Muslims. Therefore, it is from the dispraised, blameworthy innovations. The second:  that its meaning comprises both truth and falsehood. Those who affirm it enter into its meaning deficiency (naqs) and making likeness (tamtheel) that is falsehood, and those who negate it enter into its meaning denial (ta'teel)  and distortion (tahreef) that is falsehood.”
To support this innovated saying, they invented different terminologies to support it that none of the Salaf ever spoke with. 
[15]  Those who compare the Sifaat of Allaah to the Sifaat of His creation, saying that Allaahs’ Hand is like our hands, His foot like our feet, sight like our sight, and so on. This saying has been reported from the likes of Hishaam bin Saalim al-Jawaaleeqee, founder of the Haashimiyyah Raafidah Shee’ah, who was famous for tajseem (ascribing a body to Allaah) and tashbeeh (likening Allaah to His creation), saying that Allaah has the image or form of a human being, without flesh or blood, but is like a bright light, shining white, and that He has senses.
[16]  They are the sect of Abool-Hussayn Ahmad bin Yahyaa bin Ishaaq ar-Raawandee [d.298H], an imaam from the Mu’tazilah. The Raawandiyyah believed in Hulool (the inter-dwelling of Allaah in a particular human being), and that the imamate after the death of the Prophet (صلى الله غليه وسلم) should fall to his uncle, al-‘Abbaas bin ‘Abdul-Muttalib and his son, among other deviant beliefs.  See Maqaalaatul-Islaamiyeen of al-Ash’aree (pp.237, 255,  & 275) and Majmoo’ al-Fataawaa (35/47).
[17]  The Kullaabiyyah were the followers of ‘Abdullaah bin Sa’eed at-Qattaan, more commonly known as Ibn Kullaab [d.241H].  From their false beliefs was negating the Sifaat al-Fi’liyyah (Attributes related to Allaah’s actions) like the Mu’tazilah, whilst affirming the Sifaat adh-Dhaatiyyah (Attributes related to Allaah’s Self, or Essence), saying that they are descriptions of His Essence and are not Him, nor are they other than Him.  Ibn Kullaab was the first to say that the Qur’aan was eternal and that Allaah does not speak with voice, or sound.  The Ashaa’irah have their roots in the madhhab of the Kullaabiyyah.  Refer back to Majmoo’ al-Fataawaa (12/368), and Maqaalaatul-Islaamiyeen of al-Ash’aree (pp. 106-108).
[18]  The followers of Abool-Hasan Ahmad bin Saalim al-Basree [d.297H] (a companion of Sahl bin ‘Abdillaah at-Tustaree) and his son Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Saalim[d.350H].  The Saalimiyyah combined some of the sayings of Ahlus-Sunnah with the sayings of the Mu’tazilah, affirming the ‘Uluww of Allaah along with the bid’ah of hulool and other misguided sayings, as well as having Soofee tendencies.   See  Majmoo’ al-Fataawaa (5/483) and Dar’u ta’aarudil-‘Aqli wan-Naql (2/321)
[19]  Al-Haneefiyyah is the millah (religion) of Ibraaheem, the religion of pure, unadulterated Tawheed, free from shirk. Shaykhul-Islaam  said: “And the Qur’aan, all of it, indicates that al-Haneefiyyah is the millah of Ibraaheem, and that it is the worship of Allaah Alone and freedom and disavowment from shirk.  And His worship (سبحانه) can only be by what He legislated, and that enters into (the meaning of) al-Haneefiyyah.  And the acts of worship that have been innovated do not enter into it, as the Jews and Christians innovated acts of worship that the Prophets did not order them with.  For indeed Moosaa and ‘Eesaa and other than them from the Prophets of Banee Israa’eel and those who followed them, were hunafaa’, as opposed to those who changed and distorted their religion for indeed that is outside al-Haneefiyyah.  And indeed Allaah commanded the People of the Book and other than them to worship Him, making the Deen solely and sincerely for Him as hunafaa’, then they distorted and exchanged it after clear proof came to them.  And the statements of the Salaf and the People of the (Arabic) Language indicate this even though their statements vary.” Jaami’ul-Masaa’il (5/180)
[20]  This is the way of Ahlus-Sunnah in every time and place, to make clear the Furqaan (distinction) between Haqq and baatil, to warn the people against the evil and danger of bid’ah and it’s people, and refute that which opposes the methodology of the Prophet (صلى الله غليه وسلم) and his Companions with clarity and detail. Ash-Shaykh, al-‘Allaamah Rabee’ bin Haadee al-Madkhalee wrote:  “There confronted and opposed these groups (from ahlul-bid’ah), individuals and jamaa'aatImaams of Guidance, and signposts in the darkness, from the best of this Ummah, so they refuted their falsehood and misguidance. So they [the people of innovation] did not come with something from misguidance, nor a doubt except that they refuted it and clarified it's falsity, and clarified the Haqq with a clarification that was clear, following the Qur'aan and the Sunnah in showing the falseness of falsehood and it's destruction, and manifesting the Haqq.  
And indeed their actions and their jihaad in repelling the mukhaalafaat (those matters that oppose the Haqq), and clarification of the condition of its people, and clarification of the great distance of these mukhaalafaat from the guidance of the Book and the Sunnah, and clarification of the rulings of these mukhaalafaat and the rulings of its people from declaring them to be innovators and making inkaar upon them has been recorded.  Indeed they carried out this clarification based upon naseehah to Allaah and His Book and His Messenger and the leaders of the Muslims and their common folk, and preservation of their deen in numerous books, whether it was in the field of  'Aqeedah, like in the books of  'Aqaa'id, or Ahkaam, like in the books of Fiqh and explanation of hadeeth, and in the category of the narrations and conveying the Sunnah from Allaah's Messenger (
صلى الله غليه وسلم) like in the books of Rijaal (narrators) and 'Illal (hidden defects in the hadeeth),  and the books in that are in that are innumerable.”  [See Raddu kullil-munkaraat wal-ahwaa' wal-akhtaa'i manhajun shar'ee , pp.24-27]
[21] An-Noor (24):40